## Admixtures – Classification And Effects on

Admixtures. Materials other than water, aggregate and hydraulic cement that are used as an ingredient of concrete or mortar are termed admixtures. However, they are added to the batch immediately before or during mixing for uniformity. In addition, admixtures are materials added to the concrete mix to improve its workability, Read more…

## Water-cement ratio – Its Effects And Important

Water-cement ratio – Its Effects And Important       Water-cement ratio is defined as the ratio of water weight to cement weight as used in a concrete mix. The strength, durability, and workability of any concrete solely depend on this single factor called water-cement ratio. Important of Water-cement Ratio The water-cement Read more…

## Materials Estimations of Building – Concrete volume and Mixing Ratio

Materials Estimation of Building.(MEB) Concrete Volume Calculation To calculate the amount of concrete that is needed for a particular job, we must be acquitted with the following Mixing ratio Density of ordinary Portland cement =1440kg/m3 Density of sharp sand and shipping or gravel.=1600kg/m3 1000kg=1tonne 1 tone = 0.63m3 for both Read more…

## Excavation of Building Foundation Trench – Methods of Excavation

Excavation of Building Foundation Trench. What is Excavation? This is the remover of the topsoil to a reasonable depth along the foundation line as set out on the profile to get a more firm ground (soil) that can withstand the building load on which the foundation concrete is been laid. Read more…

## Profile Boards Placement – Excavation and Wall Width

Profile Boards Placement What is a building profile board? A building ‘profile boards’ is a board used to transfer the plan outline of a building onto the ground. Profile boards are held securely in one place and are made level and parallel to the floor. see figure below.   Establishment Of Excavation Width And Wall Thickness On The Read more…

## Building Plan Setting Out – Methods Used in Setting Out

Building Plan Setting Out What is setting out? This is the process of transferring the information provided in working drawing (plan) by the designing engineer or architect to the ground. This task is carried out by either a civil engineer who can be referred to as site engineer. Or a Read more…