A road pavement is a durable surfacing directly above the sub-grade on which vehicles and human move on. The primary functions of pavement are to provide a smooth surface for ridding, transmit the load to the sub-grade and underlying soil. The design of any pavement solely depends on its services and functions. On this note, before the design of any kind of pavement, the following questions must be answered.
- What is the need or purpose of the road
- What type of settlement or area is it going to connect
- What type of traffics are to ply the road
When these questions are effectively answered, sourcing of material for the work will be easy as the questions will direct us on what to put in place.
Important of road
The important of road to any country or state cannot be overemphasized as they are unlimited. This is because; the development of a country depends on the connectivity of various places with adequate road network. Roads are the major channel of transportation for carrying goods and passengers. They play a significant role in improving the socio-economic and standards of living of a region.
Roads constitute the most important mode of communication in any area and form the basic infrastructure for the development and economic growth of the country. The benefits from the investment in road sector are indirect, long-term and not immediately visible. Roads are important assets for any nation.
Types of road pavement
Roads are constructed with different materials. Therefore, the type of material used in constructing any road gives it a name. base on this, we have two major types of road pavement though there is another one that is not realistic in practic. They are:
- Flexible pavement
- Rigid pavement
- Semi-rigid pavement
A flexible pavement is simply defined as a pavement layer comprising of a mixture of aggregates and bitumen materials that are heated and mixed properly. They are then laid and compacted on a bed of granular layer of sand and gravel or crushed stones. The bituminous material used is asphalt, tar, asphaltic oil, etc. This pavement has enough plasticity to absorb shock.
A rigid pavement is a type of pavement constructed from cement concrete or reinforced concrete slabs.it comprises of coarse and fine aggregate and Portland cement, and usually reinforced with steel rod or mesh. Rigid pavement can be classified into four categories as listed below.
- Continuous reinforced concrete pavement (CRCP)
- Pre-stressed concrete pavement (PCP)
- Jointed plain concrete pavement (JPCP)
- Jointed reinforced concrete pavement (JRCP)
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